Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Qualitative methods - Participant observation Research Paper

Subjective strategies - Participant perception - Research Paper Example Writing Review: Introduction: Participant perception has its underlying foundations in anthropological investigations, where specialists would go to a distant spot to examine the traditions and practices of less known social orders (Lakono et-al, 2009). With respect to a subjective strategy, for example, semi-organized meetings, the procedure includes a scientist addressing research subjects and afterward endeavoring to comprehend what has been said by exploring the transcript of the discussion (Tolhurst, 2012).To maintain a strategic distance from one-sided comments, the specialist needs to figure out how to set aside their previously established inclinations (Kutsche, reconsidered 2008). Difficulties: The difficulties that face analysts in the field of subjective research, in any case alluded to as ethnographic hands on work, which includes member perception are huge and perplexing. These short hypothetical clarifications clarify that we are managing a social marvel that goes up ag ainst scientists with another unpredictability as far as extraordinary disturbance, and simultaneously, an exceptionally associated social development (Richter, 2012). The sociologies have especially progressed in use of subjective strategies, including sex concerns. The longing to defeat the detachment of profitable and conceptive work in the lives of both genders is a craving that must be accomplished if trade guilds see sexual orientation relations as a political test requesting their consideration (Morgenroth, 2012). Jun Li, in her examination in the field of female betting, summarizes a portion of her difficulties in a somewhat upsetting manner. By accepting a clandestine research job, I had the option to watch normal events in betting settings, however unfit to make harmony with upsetting sentiments of my examination covering. By revealing my exploration character, I had the option to satisfy moral commitments as an analyst, however unfit to get he female players to express th eir genuine thoughts (Jun Li, 2008). As indicated by Jun Li, she may never have prevailing with regards to revealing the individual insider facts behind their presentation in the game, and for some other issues they thought of her as a pariah. Member Observation Definition Participant perception is a technique for gaining data for an examination that requires the scientist to attempt their investigation in the objective society. Hence, the specialist gets ‘absorbed’ into the general public and mentions direct objective facts while in the accepted situation of an individual from the general public. Consequently they take an interest legitimately in the undertakings of their objective, and accordingly have a more clear comprehension of the parts of their investigation. Utilization of Participant Observation in Business the board The technique for member perception has after some time spread in application from the underlying sociological fields to pick up application in m ore trains, including business the executives. The administrators of a business hope to be furnished with straightforward data pretty much all parts of the business that could assist them with making prompted choices in maintaining the business. Hence, they may choose to plant ‘informers’ to refresh them on inquisitive operational subtleties. They should choose to take part in generally lower positioned obligations in the firm so as to have more clear control of tasks. A business owner intrigued by

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Association in Java Definition and Examples

Relationship in Java Definition and Examples The affiliation relationship demonstrates that a class thinks about, and holds a reference to, another class. Affiliations can be portrayed as a has-a relationship on the grounds that the regular execution in Java is using an example field. The relationship can be bi-directional with each class holding a reference to the next. Accumulation and creation are sorts of affiliation connections. Affiliations go along with at least one of one thing against at least one of something else. A teacher may be related with a school course (a balanced relationship) yet additionally with every understudy in her group (a one-to-numerous relationship). The understudies in a single area may be related with the understudies in another segment of a similar course (a many-to-numerous relationship) while all the segments of the course identify with a solitary course (a many-to-one relationship). Affiliation Example Envision a straightforward war game with an AntiAircraftGun class and a Bomber class. The two classes should know about one another in light of the fact that they are intended to devastate one another: open class AntiAirCraftGun { Â â private Bomber target; Â â private int positionX; Â â private int positionY; Â â private int harm; Â â public void setTarget(Bomber newTarget) Â â { Â â â â this.target newTarget; Â â } Â â //rest of AntiAircraftGun class } open class Bomber { Â â private AntiAirCraftGun target; Â â private int positionX; Â â private int positionY; Â â private int harm; Â â public void setTarget(AntiAirCraftGun newTarget) Â â { Â â â â this.target newTarget; Â â } Â â //rest of Bomber class } The AntiAirCraftGun class has-a Bomber object and the Bomber class has-an AntiAirCraftGun object.

Sunday, July 26, 2020

90-something days of summer (Part 1)

90-something days of summer (Part 1) Hello! Sorry for the recent lack of post! After an epic trip around Europe (which I WILL DEFINITELY blog about later!), I have to go straight to exam revision (yes, over here people say revision, not review :)). Anyway, as you can tell from my post tittle, I wanna talk a little bit about what MIT peeps do during the summer since the holiday is fast approaching (of couse, after the horrifying super intense final week for people at MIT and my crazyfrightenthelivingdaylightsoutofme 9-paper exam at Cambridge.) SIGH. I will look like a zombie for 2 months ? But it’s okay though, because I love what I am studying! My life:     Anyway back to the summer experience. Usually MIT people do epic stuff so I am super excited to share with you all! This post will be split into 2 parts because apart from talking about my summer experience, I have also invited two awesome MIT people to write about theirs! First say hello to Saba Mohsin, class of 2011. Both of us are members of Sigma Kappa sorority and that’s how I got to know her!! Since the first time I talked to her, I have always thought that she is an incredibly intelligent, motivated and inspiring individual but when I heard her describing her summer experience during her four years at MIT, my response was “WOW”. Currently, she is doing her Masters in Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University.  Anyway, here are Sabah’s epic summer experiences! “Some of my fondest memories of MIT life took place during the summertime. I was lucky enough to find three programs that allowed me to travel for 1-3 months and I can say with conviction that I am who I am today because of those opportunities. I lived in Paris for about 10 weeks during the summer of 2009 through the MISTI program. I worked in an experimental fluids lab at ESPCI and lived smack dab in the middle of one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. I spent my days capturing the effect of surface tension on submerged jet deflection and my nights strolling through the Bastille, munching on macarons. The following summer I obtained a PSC Fellowship to spend 3 months working on a portable water project in the small community of Santa Ana in the Amazon region of Ecuador. During these three months, I was challenged in more ways that I could even imagine. It was both a humbling and strengthening experience and I left there with such strong bonds with my host family and friends that I have since returned to see them again. I am so thankful that MIT gave me this part of my life. My twin host sisters (Shirley and Samira, 6 years old) who always made me laugh with the older Sacha (11), who is someone I admire very much. Collaborators from Santa Ana who helped us develop the community water system Our three team members (right to left: Mauricio, Israel and the late Antonio) who helped us with our water project and taught us more than we taught them. They were colleagues, bodyguards, jokesters, and dear friends. In 2011, two weeks after my graduation, I traveled to Costa Rica where I spent 8 weeks working alongside the Ministry of Science and Technology launching a nationwide high school science camp series as a part of Talento Joven. MIT students collaborated with Costa Rican university students, with the Costa Rican Institute of Technology, and even with HP Costa Rica to run some of the most well-received science camps ever. I was so proud to see my students finding their love of engineering and later to see them going on to college and pursue that love. Its the MIT spirit and Im glad it has infected others. Me as coordinator with the students of Costa Ricas first science camp. The most hardworking and brilliant group of counselors I could have asked for. What great people! Coordinators and counselors at the inauguration of Talento Joven. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ The second person I would love for you all to meet is Qing Li, Class of 2012. Again, we met at Sigma Kappa and I adore her wonderful personality, always cheerful, friendly and optimistic. I have always known she is a great swimmer but when she told me “I am going to swim the English Channel”, I believe my response was “WHAT? Pause. AGAIN WHAT?” This is an extremely difficult feat even for highly athletic people, but at the same time, it’s an incredible thing to do. So yes, I can’t wait to share with you all Qing’s summer training and swimming the English Channel! “Last summer, I set out to accomplish my dream of swimming the English Channel (EC). This had been my dream since junior year of high school, when my history teacher gave out end of year awards. Some people got Most-likely to cure cancer or Most-likely to be senator or even Most-likely to be arrested at a peaceful protest.Mine was Most-likely to swim the English Channel.because I was the only swimmer in my year. Swimming the EC is 20% mental, 40% physical, 20% luck, and another 20% mental. Though, retrospectively, I really wish I had brought MITs weather machine with me, seeing as I had to swim through a lighting storm and 20ft waves. I prepared physically by biking, ellipticaling, and swimming about 4-5 hrs a day as well as getting open water and night time swimming experience on the weekends. I built my swimming yardage up to about 25-30 thousand meters a week. This was the fun and easy part. (Warning: the next sentence is my public endorsement of MIT, Boston, UROPs, and LAI) Having a UROP position at MITs Lean Advancement Initiative allowed me to pursue my research in systems and lean engineering, in collaboration with Boston Medical Center Diabetes Services. I also allowed me to have access to MITs great athletic facilities and open water spots such as Walden Pond, Nahant beach, Cape Cod, Marthas Vineyard, Portsmouth NH, and other fun places in the greater Boston area. I trained with a friend from the varsity team, Anna Kokensparger, as well as two girls from Smith College who were also attempting to swim the EC last summer (and who had also succeeded). My training buddies Even though swimming the English Channel was physically challenging, the biggest obstacle for me was the mental aspect. I worked hard by talking with my varsity swim coach, MIT masters swim coach, and other EC swimmers to find out what I should expect from the swim and how to define the swim to make it my own. The mental preparation beforehand really helped me deal with my doubts about not finishing, the nausea, the physical pain, and the cold. My preparation with Coach Bill of MIT Masters swimming helped me greatly. He had told me about the idea of treeing. This is the technique triathletes use to forget about small things that go wrong during their race by channeling all the negative thoughts into a tree. After passing that tree, they would forget about those thoughts and, instead, focus on what comes ahead. I counted a forest by the end of the swim. My thoughts of giving started with the first hour of the 17 hour swim. I already had motion sickness from the boat before I got into the water causing me to vomit eight time during my swim. And as I swam into the night, brought a darkness that blinded my senses and cooled the air and water to the low 60s. I shivered uncontrollably. Despite this, the lowing sun behind the white cliffs of Dover flooded my eyes with the most beautiful sunset I had ever seen. I was swimming in a National Geography foldout!! Beautiful sunset! The most challenging part of the swim came when I was just 5 miles from shore, which I knew it would. As we headed towards the eleventh hour, my head spun and my spirits were bruised from battling sea-sickness, cold, and storm. Light appeared and I began to see sea-birds, but still no land. As I swam on, the swells grew and fatigue set in and I struggled to stay along side my boat to take my feed. When I finally decided to as where I was, the answer I got was Three and a half miles away. How long do you think it will take you? Ha! Ha! Haha!! 3.5 mile? Thats 6,106 yards! Or 5,632.704 meters! Or 5.6 kilometers! Thats just a two hour practice! Well, long story short, it actually took me five hours instead of the two hours I was hoping for. However, hearing I was so close was enough to renew my energy. I thought of everyones support and the journey I had taken that summer. I knew I could not have even thought about attempting the swim, let alone getting that close to shore, without so many supporters. My goggles filled to the brim with tears (and it wasnt because my face got thrown into the edge of the boat right after my feed). Though my shoulders hurt, my stomach churned, and the waves sloshed over me, it was the support of everyone that allowed me to find the courage and energy to continue to swim. Looking back, it wasnt the pain or the time and resources needed that ever detracted me from my goal. Nor was it the pure feat of swimming the English Channel that drove me to finish. What I gained from this experience was the opportunity to learn about myself, meet new people, and gain great friendships. Some say that the finish is almost anticlimactic. As you reach the red shores of France, the is a daunting question of Great, Im finished. What now? For me, even before I swam, I knew I had gained so much already through that summer. The opportunity to swim and the ability to finish the English Channel was the cherry, the whipped cream, and chocolate frosting of an amazing journey. After I reached France, with my parents.   While this challenge was tremendous, I cant say it has proven me worthy of accomplishing everything I want to in the future. I probably will not cure cancer, nor will I become senator. However, I believe this experience as well as four years at MIT has prepared me to face the future with the best tools available and probably, most-importantly, gain the capacity to learn. Thanks Saba and Qing for sharing with me and MIT admissions blog readers their incredible summers. I hope you all are inspired by them and plan great things for your 2012 summer. Next post: my summer fun! Love Linh

Friday, May 22, 2020

AP English Language and Composition Classes - 1650 Words

Ms. Czapski’s 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 6th Hour Advanced Placement English Language and Composition Classes Name: __________________________________________ Hour: ________ Date: _____________________ Introduction to Writing the Precis DIRECTIONS: Please thoughtfully answer each of the following questions about Geoffrey Nunberg’s The –Ism Schism; How Much Wallop Can a Simple Word Pack, Ellen Goodman’s In Praise of a Snail’s Pace, and Ronald J. Glasser’s We are not Immune: Influenza, SARS, and the Collapse of Public Health. You may write directly on this worksheet. For Geoffrey Nunberg’s The Ism Schism; How Much Wallop Can a Simple Word Pack: 1.) What is the complete name of the author of this article? _____________________†¦show more content†¦Ask yourself how the language of the work excludes certain audiences (non-specialists would not understand the terminology; children would not understand the irony) in order to see that the author did make certain assumptions about the pre-existing knowledge of the audience. You may also report the author s tone. ____________________________________________________________ ________________ ____________________________________________________________ _________________________ For Ellen Goodman’s In Praise of a Snail’s Pace: 1.) What is the complete name of the author of this article? __________________________________________ 2.) Who is this author? What are his/her expertise in relation to this topic? What is his/her experience with this topic? How did he/she gain his/her knowledge to compose this article? Use a short phrase to answer this question: ____________________________________________________________ ______________________ 3.) What is the genre of this work (what type of writing is it)? _________________________________________ 4.) What is the complete title of the work? _______________________________________________________ 5.) What is the publication date of this piece of writing? _____________________________________________ 6.) Is any other interesting orShow MoreRelatedGraduation Speech : Skipping English964 Words   |  4 PagesPlacement (AP) and AICE classes in order to obtain college credit hours well in advance, and each one presents an exam at the end of the year. If they pass these exams with a certain grade or score, then they can avoid taking certain prerequisite classes because they met some of the requirements for their college general education plan.. In fact, I was able to skip English Composition I in my freshman year , for my scores in AP English Language and Composition allowed me to enroll in Honors English CompositionRead MoreClass Reflection Essay786 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout the time that I was in high-school I have taken many English classes leading up to this Ivy Tech class. During my freshman year I was required to participate in English 9 which required students to do more reading than writing. During my sophomore year I took English 10 that involved more reading. Then last year I took AP Language and Composition for college credits. Reading and writing were split 50/50. We were required to read a new book every nine weeks and be quizzed. We also wroteRead MoreAP English Language and Composition. Reading Assignment1480 Words   |  6 PagesAP English Language and Composition Summer Reading Assignment Welcome to APE! You are about to begin a course unlike any other English class you have taken. 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By some people, women are not treated on the same level as men because of preconceived stereotypes and gender roles. However, others have been fighting tirelessly to increase the amount of people who treat women and men equally. Although women are treated more fairly with regards to men today than in the 1950’s, there are still many discrepancies between theRead MoreEnglish Language And Composition Of The Victorian Era1320 Words   |  6 PagesMichael Linares Ms. Sipars AP English Language and Composition 15 September 2015 Response #1 England’s Victorian Era was a very influential and interesting Era that took place during the time that Queen Victoria was the Queen of England. The Victorian Era started around 1830 and lasted up until the start of the 20th Century. During this Era England became very powerful. Many amazing masterpieces were created by great artists like Oscar Wilde and Charles Dickens. The three class system which weRead MoreSummer Reading2774 Words   |  12 PagesOUR SAVIOR NEW AMERICAN SCHOOL SUMMER READING ASSIGNMENT 2012-2013 High School English 9th – 12th grade OSNAS students are required to read two novels if placed in an English Regular’s or Honor’s class and three novels if placed in an AP English class: Several grades will be given for the summer reading. ïÆ'Ëœ Dialectical response journals for each book (rubric attached). ïÆ'Ëœ Exams on the assigned novels within the first days of school. ïÆ'Ëœ In class essay questions on each of the novels. 9th Grade Regulars

Friday, May 8, 2020

Assessment of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Interventions

Assessment of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Interventions How is the literature review used in this research study? Using one (1) previous study cited by the authors, discuss how the findings of this past study is relevant to the current study. (2 pts) The literature review in this study was used to demonstrate the problem and occurrence of adolescent pregnancy and birth rates in the United States. Furthermore, the concern about this phenomenon as it pertains to Florida is addressed. A correlation between teenagers who live in poverty and a greater risk of teenage pregnancy was asserted through the literature. The authors cite a 2001 report by the Florida Department of Health Office of Vital Statistics that estimates the birthrate was 35.3 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 in the state and 41.7 in Hillsborough County, where this current study takes place. What are the ethical considerations in this study for the data collection process? (1.5 pts) This study compared students who participated in one of programs designed to mitigate adolescent pregnancy with a control group. Participants were chosen randomly in order to assure the integrity of the research. Data was collected anonymously on each research protocol. No indication is given as to whether or not parental consent to participate in the survey was sought. State the statistical tests or data analysis methods/procedures used in the study. (1 pt) Statistical analyses for this study consisted of chi-square tests ofShow MoreRelatedTeenage Moms That Are Still In High School Get Pregnant1391 Words   |  6 Pagesare still in high school get pregnant at a young age, and are not able to support themselves or their child. There were just under a quarter million pregnancies in women ages fifteen to nineteen in 2014. About eighty-five percent of these pregnancies are unplanned, which in any population can increase the risk for problems. The biggest risk for teen mothers is delaying prenatal care or worse, about seven percent received no care at all. According to CDC, In 2014, almost 250,000 babies were bornRead MorePublic Health Nurses : The Leading Cause Of Death Among Girls Essay1709 Words   |  7 PagesComplications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death among girls ages 15-19 in LMIC’s (Morris Rushwan, 2015). The primary reason for these preventable death-causing complications is that teenagers are not properly supplied with contraceptives. Due to these unplanned and unwanted pregnancies approximately 4.5 million teenage girls undergo an abortion each year, with an estimated 3 million of them being performed unsafely (Morris Rushwan, 2015). Some detrimental complicationsRead MorePregnancy Prevention Programs Are Still Being Left Unanswered1727 Words   |  7 PagesPregnancy amongst school aged children is a major social problem that has been rapidly increasing throughout many at risk populations for centuries (Leonard, Sara Major and Suellentrop, Katherine, 2013). While funding for programs that provide services to the pregnant population is growing the true question about pregnancy prevention programs are still being left unanswered. What efforts are being made towards the prevention of these very same pregnancies? All too often courses such as sex educationRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy Among Urban Adolescent Women1115 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to the study, â€Å"Multi-level Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Urban Adolescent Women Seeking Psychological Services† teen pregnancy is still an ongoing issue that affects minority women. A great deal of research and literature pertaining to teenage pregnancy has been completed, however not much research focus on teen pregnancy amongst those females with mental illness (Lang et al., 2013). Due to the scarcity of research and literature, an investigation of risk factors associated withRead MoreHealth And Social Service Programs1235 Words   |  5 PagesBackground: Adolescent pregnancy, primarily occurring in ages 13-18 years, has a negative impact on the physical, psychological, educational, and economic area of the pregnant girls. Objective: To evaluate some health and social service programs that can reduce American adolescent Pregnancy from Ages 13- 18 and improve their quality of life. Methods: Review two research articles and to assess the overall quality of the data from the studies. 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When it comes to pregnancy 3 in 10 adolescentRead MoreTeen Pregnancy Is A Global Problem Essay1657 Words   |  7 Pages Literature Review Teen pregnancy is a global problem, it affects all demographics, but certain populations are at greater risk. Statics show that African-American and Hispanic teenage women in the Unites States have the highest birthrates. Inconsistent research of young African American women is at a greater risk of becoming teenage mothers; the culture may contribute to this trend, though the complex relationships (Furstenberg, 1992; Geronimus, 2003; Sullivan, 1993). According to Trussell (1988)Read MoreEssay The Importance of Prenatal Care1658 Words   |  7 PagesThe Importance of Prenatal Care Prenatal care is widely accepted as an important element in improving pregnancy outcome. (Gorrie, McKinney, Murray, 1998). Prenatal care is defined as care of a pregnant woman during the time in the maternity cycle that begins with conception and ends with the onset of labor. A medical, surgical, gynecologic, obstretic, social and family history is taken (Mosbys Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 1998). It is important for a pregnant woman as

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Board of Directors †Roles and Responsibilities Free Essays

The Board of Directors – roles and responsibilities The board’s key purpose is to ensure the company’s prosperity by collectively directing the company’s affairs, whilst meeting the appropriate interests of its shareholders and stakeholders. The objects of the company are defined in the Memorandum of Association and regulations are laid out in the Articles of Association. Appointment of directors The ultimate control as to the composition of the board of directors rests with the shareholders, who can always appoint, and – more importantly, sometimes – dismiss a director. We will write a custom essay sample on The Board of Directors – Roles and Responsibilities or any similar topic only for you Order Now The shareholders can also fix the minimum and maximum number of directors. However, the board can usually appoint (but not dismiss) a director to his office as well. A director may be dismissed from office by a majority vote of the shareholders, provided that a special procedure is followed. The procedure is complex, and legal advice will always be required. Role of the board of directors Boards can be helped greatly by focusing on four key areas: Establish vision, mission and values †¢ Determine the company’s vision and mission to guide and set the pace for its current operations and future development. †¢ †¢ Determine the values to be promoted throughout the company. Determine and review company goals. Determine company policies Set strategy and structure †¢ Review and evaluate present and future opportunities, threats and risks in the external environment and current and future strengths, weaknesses and risks relating to the company. †¢ †¢ â₠¬ ¢ Determine strategic options, select those to be pursued, and decide the means to implement and support them. Determine the business strategies and plans that underpin the corporate strategy. Ensure that the company’s organisational structure and capability are appropriate for implementing the chosen strategies. Delegate to management †¢ Delegate authority to management, and monitor and evaluate the implementation of policies, strategies and business plans. †¢ †¢ †¢ Determine monitoring criteria to be used by the board. Ensure that internal controls are effective. Communicate with senior management. Exercise accountability to shareholders and be responsible to relevant stakeholders †¢ Ensure that communications both to and from shareholders and relevant stakeholders are effective. †¢ †¢ Understand and take into account the interests of shareholders and relevant stakeholders. Monitor relations with shareholders and relevant stakeholders by gathering and evaluation of appropriate information. Promote the goodwill and support of shareholders and relevant stakeholders. Responsibilities of directors Directors look after the affairs of the company, and are in a position of trust. They might abuse their position in order to profit at the expense of their company, and, therefore, at the expense of the shareholders of the company. Consequently, the law imposes a number of duties, burdens and responsibilities upon directors, to prevent abuse. Much of company law can be seen as a balance between allowing directors to manage the company’s business so as to make a profit, and preventing them from abusing this freedom. Directors are responsible for ensuring that proper books of account are kept. In some circumstances, a director can be required to help pay the debts of his company, even though it is a separate legal person. For example, directors of a company who try to ‘trade out of difficulty’ and fail may be found guilty of ‘wrongful trading’ and can be made personally liable. Directors are particularly vulnerable if they have acted in a way which benefits themselves. †¢ The directors must always exercise their powers for a ‘proper purpose’ – that is, in furtherance of the reason for which they were given those powers by the shareholders. Directors must act in good faith in what they honestly believe to be the best interests of the company, and not for any collateral purpose. This means that, particularly in the event of a conflict of interest between the company’s interests and their own, the directors must always favour the company. Directors must act with due skill and care. Directors must consider the interests of employees of the company. †¢ †¢ †¢ Calling a directors’ meeting A director, or the secretary at the request of a director, may call a directors’ meeting. A secretary may not call a meeting unless requested to do so by a director or the directors. Each director must be given reasonable notice of the meeting, stating its date, time and place. Commonly, seven days is given but what is ‘reasonable’ depends in the last resort on the circumstances Non-executive directors Legally speaking, there is no distinction between an executive and non-executive director. Yet there is inescapably a sense that the non-executive’s role can be seen as balancing that of the executive director, so as to ensure the board as a whole functions effectively. Where the executive director has an intimate knowledge of the company, the non-executive director may be expected to have a wider perspective of the world at large. 2 The chairman of the board The articles usually provide for the election of a chairman of the board. They empower the directors to appoint one of their own number as chairman and to determine the period for which he is to hold office. If no chairman is elected, or the elected chairman is not present within five minutes of the time fixed for the meeting or is unwilling to preside, those directors in attendance may usually elect one of their number as chairman of the meeting. The chairman will usually have a second of casting vote in the case of equality of votes. Unless the articles confer such a vote upon him, however, a chairman has no casting vote merely by virtue of his office. Since the chairman’s position is of great importance, it is vital that his election is clearly in accordance with any special procedure laid down by the articles and that it is unambiguously minuted; this is especially important to avoid disputes as to his period in office. Usually there is no special procedure for resignation. As for removal, articles usually empower the board to remove the chairman from office at any time. Proper and clear minutes are important in order to avoid disputes. Role of the chairman The chairman’s role includes managing the board’s business and acting as its facilitator and guide. This can include: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Determining board composition and organisation; Clarifying board and management responsibilities; Planning and managing board and board committee meetings; Developing the effectiveness of the board. Shadow directors In many circumstances, the law applies not only to a director, but to a ‘shadow director’. A shadow director is a person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of a company are accustomed to act. Under this definition, it is possible that a director, or the whole board, of a holding company, and the holding company itself, could be treated as a shadow director of a subsidiary. Professional advisers giving advice in their professional capacity are specifically excluded from the definition of a shadow director in the companies legislation. RCW 5/11/2000 Sources: Standards for the Board, Institute of Directors The Independent Director, IoD/Ernst ; Young Running a limited company, David Impney ; Nicholas Montague, Jordans  © 2000 Brefi Group Limited http://www. corporatecoach. co. uk/ How to cite The Board of Directors – Roles and Responsibilities, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Volkswagen of America Managing It Priorities free essay sample

Background In 2002, Volkswagen of America (VWoA) together with other organizational entities of the Volkswagen enterprise created a high-level business architecture called a blueprint. This blueprint of the business was primarily developed to formalize the new IT governance and prioritization processes linked to the corporate strategy. Each business unit categorized its IT projects for funding based on their business impact and their alignment with the business goals. Several entities within the organization ere involved in the process of categorizing similar projects under enterprise portfolios, and select the most viable current business projects. Problem The main problem with the new process of managing IT priorities was the lack of a global perspective and a holistic approach in prioritizing IT projects. This was apparent as a critical project of global Supply Flow management was left partially funded even though the project required full funding to stay on track. It was realized that the some business units were incorrectly aligning their projects to enterprise oals in the lieu of funding opportunities, leading important projects sidelined or unfunded. We will write a custom essay sample on Volkswagen of America: Managing It Priorities or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Recommendations and Alternatives Priority should be given to the projects that are aligned with business goals of the enterprise. The parent group and partner companies of Volkswagen of America should consider funding critical global projects, like the Supply Flow project. Although the recommendation would garner opposition from managers of the various business units, an understanding of long term benefits has to be clearly specified. Funds from other entities of Volkswagen will also Justify the allocation of funds to the other higher ranked projects. Volkswagen could also create strategy relationship between IT and other business units and try to involve other business leaders with IT selection. While the process would include higher cost, it would result in effective project selection. Alternately, the entire process may be reviewed and assessed thoroughly. This could prevent all the critical projects in the organization from being deprived of funds.